Pain

Pain is a common symptom that can be complex to treat. Analgesic medications are the mainstay treatment, but there is wide interindividual variability in analgesic response and adverse effects. Pharmacogenetic test can identify the inherited genetic traits that result in these individual responses to drugs, examining common genes affecting metabolism of analgesic medications.

Fibromyalgia Agents

  • Milnacipran (Savella®)

Muscle Relaxants

  • Carisoprodol (Soma®)
  • Cyclobenzaprine (Flexeril®, Amrix®)
  • Metaxalone (Skelaxin®)
  • Methocarbamol (Roboxin®)
  • Tizanidine (Zanaflex®)

NSAIDs

  • Celecoxib (Celebrex®)
  • Diclofenac (Voltaren®)
  • Flurbiprofen (Ansaid®)
  • Ibuprofen (Motrin®)
  • Indomethacin (Indocin®)
  • Ketaprofen (Orudis®)
  • Ketorolac (Toradol®)
  • Meloxicam (Mobic®)
  • Nabumetone (Relafen®)
  • Naproxen (Aleve®)
  • Piroxicam (Feldene®)
  • Sulindac (Clinoril®)

Opioids

  • Alfentanil (Alfenta®)
  • Buprenorphine (Butrans®, Buprenex®)
  • Codeine (Codeine®
  • Fioricet with Codeine®)
  • Dihydrocodeine (Synalgos-DC®)
  • Fentanyl (Actiq®)
  • Hydrocodone (Vicodin®)
  • Hydromorphone (Dilaudid®, Exalgo®)
  • Levorphanol (Levo Dromoran®)
  • Meperidine (Demerol®)
  • Methadone (Dolophine®)
  • Morphine (MS Contin®)
  • Oxycodone (Percocet®)
  • Oxymorphone (Opana®)
  • Sufentanil (Sufenta®)
  • Tapentadol (Nucynta®) Tramadol (Ultram®)
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