There are numerous reasons to address the pharmacogenomics that are related to different kidney functions and treatments. Drug-treatment benefits in the pharmacogenomics of patients with kidney disease are based on avoiding nephrotoxic drugs, personalizing antihypertensive and cardiovascular drugs, and identifying the enzymes and proteins involved in the pharmacokinetics of drugs to improve renal function and BP.15 Therefore, renal pharmacogenomics encompasses three important issues: ACE inhibitors, VDR agonists, and dietary salt intake


  • Alfuzosin (UroXatral®)
  • Doxazosin (Cardura®)
  • Silodosin (Rapaflo®)
  • Tamsulosin (Flomax®)
  • Terazosin (Hytrin®)


  • Dutasteride (Avodart®)
  • Finasteride (Proscar®)


  • Darifenacin (Enablex®)
  • Fesoterodine (Toviaz®)
  • Mirabegron (Myrbetriq®)
  • Oxybutynin (Ditropan®)
  • Solifenacin (Vesicare®)
  • Tolterodine (Detrol®)
  • Trospium (Sanctura®)

Phosphodiesterase Inhibitors

  • Avanafil (Stendra®)
  • Sildenafil (Viagra®)
  • Tadalafil (Cialis®)
  • Vardenafil (Levitra®)
Add test to cart Learn more